Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS)

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute immune-mediated polyneuropathies, in which the body’s immune system attacks its own peripheral nerves.

The acute neuropathies present as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) include:

  • Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP)
  • Miller Fisher syndrome
  • Acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN)
  • Acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN)


Children with Guillain-Barré syndrome frequently present with symmetrical muscle weakness and a tingling sensation in the legs that rapidly spreads to the arms and upper body. The muscle weakness may vary from mild involvement to total paralysis. In such situations, the disorder could be dangerous as it interfers with breathing, and, at times, with blood pressure or heart rate regulation, so is considered an important medical emergency. In children, frequent occurrence of pain is also a significant symptom, along with muscle weakness. Most affected individuals can have good recovery from even the most severe presentation of GBS, although some continue to have a certain degree of residual weakness.


GBS can be confirmed by nerve conduction study and electromyography, spine MRI with gadolinium contrast, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis.