The Division of Paediatric Cardiology of the Department has been established
at the Grantham Hospital for over two decades. It is the major tertiary
referral centre in Hong Kong providing a comprehensive paediatric cardiological
service for children with heart diseases. We provide clinical services
for in-patient, out-patient and day-patient.
paediatric cardiac intensive care unit was established to look after
post-operative and critically ill children with heart diseases. It provides
nitric oxide inhalation therapy for treatment of post-operative pulmonary
hypertension and mechanical circulatory support including intra-aortic
balloon pump and ventricular assist device for treatment of low cardiac
A cardiac catheterization laboratory is dedicated for diagnostic and
therapeutic cardiac catheterizations as well as electrophysiological
studies and intervention in children.
The paediatric cardiac centre receives patients from the whole of Hong
Kong and Macau. We also receive overseas referrals from Mainland China
and Asian countries. We manage serious and complicated congenital heart
diseases in the centre. Each year, the number of admission is about
1,000 and the Day Care Centre handles 1,800-2,000 children for pre-operative
and pre-catheterization assessments, immediate post-operative re-evaluation
and follow-up of high-risk cases. Cardiac out-patient attendance is
about 9,000 a year.
More than 300 paediatric cardiac operations, including neonatal and
complicated operations like arterial switch operation, neonatal repair
of truncus arteriosus, Fontan operations, Norwood operations, Konno
and Ross procedures, are performed in the centre.
wide variety of therapeutic cardiac catheterizations are performed in
our centre. Each year, we perform 400-500 cardiac catheterizations of
which about 50% are therapeutic cardiac catheterizations. They include
transcatheter occlusion of persistent arterial duct, atrial septal defect
and ventricular septal defect; balloon valvuloplasty of pulmonary and
aortic valvar stenosis ; balloon angioplasty of stenotic blood vessels;
stent implantation of stenotic pulmonary arteries, aorta and various
vascular stenoses. We also apply laser-assisted or radiofrequency-assisted
balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty for treatment of pulmonary atresia with
intact ventricular septum and other complex congenital heart diseases.
Our electrophysiologist offers not only electrophysiological studies,
but also radiofrequency ablation and more recently cryoablation as well
as pacemaker implantation to treat children with cardiac arrhythmias.
Division of Paediatric Cardiology is a training centre not only for
local paediatric cardiologists, but also for those from Mainland China,
Macau and some Asian countries in the past two decades. The majority
of local paediatric cardiologists and over 20 overseas paediatric cardiologists
have gone through the training programme in our centre. We also participate
in the training of paediatricians and specialist cardiac nurses.
As a member of the Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine,
we are actively participating in teaching of medical students and paediatric
nurses. With regard to post-graduate education, we have MPhil students,
PhD students and Master of Medical Science students being enrolled.
The modules offered in the Master of Medical Science curriculum include
principle and practice of paediatric cardiology, cardiac catheterization,
echocardiography, investigation in paediatric cardiology and the long-term
outcome of congenital heart disease.
We are the major paediatric
cardiac centre in Hong Kong. Our comprehensive service which produces
high quality outcomes is provided by a dedicated and highly specialized
multi-disciplinary team. We play a leading role in the overall development
of paediatric cardiology in Hong Kong and in the introduction of new
therapeutic modalities to treat heart disease in children. We are a
training and educational centre for paediatric cardiologists, paediatricians,
medical students and nurses. A good track record of research and publications
has been maintained for the past decades. Our strong links with academic
institutions in both China and overseas will further enhance our exchange
of experience and collaborations in clinical service, education, training
and research with these centres.
The future development of the Division will be focused on treatment
of complex heart disease and to improve their outcome; introduction
of new therapeutic cardiac catheterization techniques to treat congenital
heart disease; establishment of an adult congenital heart programme
and a more structured training programme for the future paediatric cardiologists.
We will continue to strive for excellence in research. We hope that
all these efforts will ultimately lead to provision of quality care
to patients; improved outcome and advancement in medical and scientific
Grant & Awards
We actively engage in paediatric cardiovascular research, the scope
of which encompasses three domains: (1) congenital heart disease, (2)
acquired heart disease, and (3) vascular function in health and disease.
These three domains intersect and amalgamate to form the central theme
of ventriculo-vascular coupling.
Our group has contributed to the literature regarding management and
outcomes of the children with congenital heart lesions that are prevalent
in this locality, namely subarterial ventricular septal defect, right
atrial isomerism, critical pulmonary stenosis and pulmonary atresia.
In the current era of therapeutic cardiac catheterization, we have reported
our experience in device occlusion, angioplasty, stent implantation
and laser technology. We have also participated in a number of multi-centre
trials for application of new devices.
With regard to exploring the paediatric use of non-invasive novel imaging
modalities, we have contributed to the definition of the role of the
dobutamine stress echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging in the
assessment of cardiac function in children with congenital and acquired
We have studied cardiovascular risk factors for Kawasaki disease in
Chinese children. A laboratory is established in recent years to study
the cardiopulmonary function in children with heart diseases.
In the light of the importance of ventriculo-vascular interaction, our
group is among the first to evaluate the significance of vascular function
in health and disease in children. Non-invasive assessments of arterial
stiffness and endothelial function performed in several at-risk cohorts
have yielded important data which help our understanding of impact of
prenatal growth and programming, vascular inflammation, iron overloading
and upper airway obstruction on arterial function.
We have also collaborated with the scientists to improve our understanding
on possible gene mutations in the etiology of congenital heart disease
and the genetic influence on arterial function.
We have an extensive network with all the paediatric departments in
Hong Kong and also provide out-reaching consultation services to many
of these departments.
Our established close-links with the major paediatric cardiac centres
in both China and overseas have facilitated various forms of collaborations
and exchanges with these centres. A certificate course in paediatric
cardiology, organized biennially by the division, has been well received
by paediatricians, obstetricians and the nursing profession.
Besides clinical service, teaching, training and research, we have a
strong link with the community. The Children's Heart Foundation was
established in 1994 by a group of enthusiastic parents and some of our
staff. With the collaborations of the Children's Heart Foundation, we
have organized a variety of activities like exhibitions, pamphlets,
public seminars and talks to raise public awareness of the problems
of children with heart disease and to promote the concept that "Heart
Health Begins in Childhood". Parent and adolescent support groups
have been formed for experience sharing and provision of mutual support
among patients and families. Through the Children's Heart Foundation,
financial support is also provided for families in need.